Agrarianist practices of resolving the agrarian issue during the period of the Ukrainian revolution (1917 – 1921)

Main Article Content

Serhii Kornovenko
Viktoria Telvak


Introduction. The authors reveal that one of the phenomena of Central-South-Eastern European history of the second half
of the XIX – fi rst third of the XX century, in particular the revolutionary upheavals of the early XX century, was agrarianism.
It was the offi cial policy of the governments of Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and so on. Ukraine in the early
twentieth century wasn’t an exception, given the agrarian nature of the then Ukrainian society. During the years of the
Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921, which, among other things, had a distinctly peasant character, the agrarian practices of
P. Skoropadsky and P. Wrangel were marked by the agrarianist content.
Purpose. The authors of the article, taking into account the phenomenal nature of agrarianism, the peasant character of
the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921, aim to study Ukrainian agrarianism (agrarianist practices) as a component of domestic
economic governmental policy aimed at solving the agrarian/peasant issue in Ukraine in 1917-1921.
Results. First, these leaders understood the peasantry as an active subject of history, the social basis of the state. They
also had a corresponding attitude to the peasantry, which is refl ected in legislation and agricultural policy. Second, they
understood agricultural policy broadly as a component of domestic economic policy, containing socio-economic and sociopolitical components. Socio-economic part – land reform and settlement of current agricultural affairs: improving land
management, improving agro-technical land cultivation, providing peasant households with agricultural equipment, seeds,
working cattle and more. Socio-political aspect – forms and methods of cooperation between the authorities and the peasantry,
the subjectivization of the peasantry in the current political and legal model of the state.
Conclusion. Third, both P. Skoropadsky and P. Wrangel sought not a monarchical, not a socialist, but an alternative way,
and were supporters of an innovative model of agricultural development. In their understanding – highly cultured peasant
households. Fourth, the instrument of subjectivization of the peasantry – the social basis of the state for them was private
peasant ownership of land. The latter was considered the foundation of culture and civilization, the inviolable principle of
existence of the state. Providing peasants with private ownership of land and a signifi cant restriction on large land holdings is
the cornerstone of the agrarian practices of P. Skoropadsky and P. Wrangel.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kornovenko С. ., & Telvak В. . (2021). Agrarianist practices of resolving the agrarian issue during the period of the Ukrainian revolution (1917 – 1921). Ukrainian Peasant, (25).
History of agrarianism
Author Biographies

Serhii Kornovenko, Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy

PhD hab. (History), Professor, Department of Intellectual Property and Civil Law Disciplines, Bohdan Khmelnytsky
National University of Cherkasy, Cherkasy, Ukraine

Viktoria Telvak, Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University

PhD (History), Associate Professor, Department of World History and Special Historical Disciplines, Drohobych Ivan
Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych, Ukraine


Matveev, G. (1991). «Tretiy put»? Ideologiya agrarizma v Chehoslovakii i Polshe v mezhvoennyiy period. [“The third

way”? The ideology of agrarianism in Czechoslovakia and Poland in the interwar period]. Moskva : Izd-vo Moskovskogo universiteta.

[in Russian].

Krapivin, A. & Byichihin, Yu. (1998). Agrarizm Dimitra Dragieva – vozhdya bolgarskih krestyan. [Agrarianism of Dimitar

Dragiev - the leader of the Bulgarian peasants]. Visnik Donetskogo unIversitetu, SerIya B: GumanItarnI nauki. [Bulletin of Donetsk

University, Series B: Humanitarian Science], 2, 69 – 72. [in Russian].

Makovetskaya, T. & Pokivaylova, T. (1984). Krestyanskie partii v politicheskoy strukture Bolgarii i Rumyinii v pervoy

chverti HH v. [Peasant parties in the political structure of Bulgaria and Romania in the fi rst quarter of the 20th century]. Balkanskie

issledovaniya. – Vyip. 9.: Voprosyi sotsialnoy, politicheskoy i kulturnoy istorii Yugo-Vostochnoy Evropyi. [Balkan Studies. - Issue.

.: Issues of social, political and cultural history of South-Eastern Europe]. Retrieved from

krestyanskie-partii-politicheskoy-strukture-37960.html [in Russian].

Burdiak, V. (2014). Politychnyi protses u Bolharii mizhvoiennoho periodu. [Political process in the Bulgarian interim

period]. Istoryko-politychni problemy suchasnoho svitu. [Historical and Political Problems of Contemporary Svit], 27–28, 16–22. [in


Halushko, K. (2000). «Khliborobska ideolohiia» V. Lypynskoho u systemi skhidnoievropeiskoho ahraryzmu. [“Agricultural

ideology” V. Lypynsky in the system of Eastern European agrarianism]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zbirnyk. [Ukrainian historical

collection], 2, 164 – 200. [in Ukrainian].

Kornovenko, S. & Zemziulina, N. (2018). Revoliutsiini potriasinnia pochatku KhKh st.: ahrarne zakonodavstvo krain

Tsentralnoi ta Pivdenno-skhidnoi Yevropy. [Revoliutsiini potriasinnia pochatku KhKh st.: ahrarne zakonodavstvo krain Tsentralnoi ta

Pivdenno-skhidnoi Yevropy]. Ukrainskyi selianyn [Ukrainskyi selianyn], 19, 45 – 49. [in Ukrainian].

Kornovenko, S. (2012). Selianstvo u vranhelivskii modeli onovlenoi rosiiskoi derzhavnosti (1920 r.). [Peasantry in

Wrangel’s model of renewed Russian statehood (1920)]. Hurzhiivski istorychni chytannia. (Gurzhiyev historical readings), 5, 285 –

[in Ukrainian].

Holec, R. (2011). Agrarian democracy as an attempt at a third way in Central European transformation [Agrarna demokracia

ako pokus o tretiu cestu Stredoeuropskej transformacie] Historicky Casopis, 59, 11, 3 – 32. [in English

Bernstein, H. (2018). The peasant problem in the Russia revolution(s), 1905 – 1929. Journal of Peasant Studies, 45 (5 – 6),

– 1150. [in English]

Sumpf A. (2017). The Russian peasant revolution [les revolutions du paysan russe]. Vingtieme Siecl: Revue Historie, 135

(3), 102 – 116. [in English]

Finkel, E. & Gehlbach, S. & Kofanov, D. (2017). (Good) Land and Freedom (for Former Serfs): Determinants of Peasant

Unrest in European Russia, March-October 1917. Slavic Review, 76 (3), 710 – 721. [in English]

Kornovenko, S., Pasichna, Y. (2020). Agrarian Reform of P. Wrangel in the South of Ukraine (1920). Skhidnoievropeiskyi

Istorychnyi Visnyk [East European Historical Bulletin], 17, 138–157.

Kornovenko, S. & Telvak, V. (2020) Ahraryzm yak selianotsentrychnyi fenomen krain Tsentralnoi ta Pivdenno-Skhidnoi

Yevropy druhoi polovyny KhIKh – pershoi tretyny KhKh st.: vytoky i sutnist yavyshcha. [Agrarianism as a peasant-centric phenomenon

of the countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe of the second half of the XIX - fi rst third of the XX century: origins and essence

of the phenomenon]. Ukrainskyi selianyn. (Ukrainian peasant), 24, 10 – 16. [in Ukrainian].

Kompaniiets, O. (2020) Ahraryzm yak selianotsentrychnyi fenomen Ukrainskoi revoliutsii 1917 – 1921 rokiv u konteksti

rozvytku yevropeiskoho ta pivnichnoamerykanskoho ahraryzmu KhIKh – pershoi tretyny KhKh stolittia: ohliad zarubizhnykh dzherel.

[Agrarianism as a peasant-centric phenomenon of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917 - 1921 in the context of the development of

European and North American agrarianism of the XIX - fi rst third of the XX century: a review of foreign sources.]. Ukrainskyi

selianyn. (Ukrainian peasant), 24, 86 – 92. [in Ukrainian].

Lozovyi, V. (2020) Dzherelno-dokumentalne zabezpechennia doslidzhennia problemy ahraryzmu periodu Ukrainskoi

revoliutsii 1917 – 1921. [Source and documentary support for the study of the problem of agrarianism during the Ukrainian Revolution

of 1917 - 1921] Ukrainskyi selianyn. (Ukrainian peasant), 24, 92 – 97. [in Ukrainian].

Kornovenko, S., Zemziulina, N., Kovalova, N., Malynovskyi, B., Masnenko, V., Morozov, A., Mykhailiuk, O. & Pasichna

Yu. (2020). Selianstvo, zemlia i vlada v period Ukrainskoi revoliutsii (1917 – 1921). [Peasants, land and power during the Ukrainian

Revolution (1917 - 1921)]. Cherkasy. [in Ukrainian].

Skoropadskyi, P. (1995). Spohady. [Memories]. Kyiv ; Filadelfi ia. [in Ukrainian].

Derzhavnyi Vistnyk. (State Bulletin) (1918), 16. 5, 1. [in Ukrainian].

Selianske slovo. (The peasant word). (1918), 25. 6. [in Ukrainian].

Farenii, I. (2014). «Natsionalnyi ukrainskyi trest»: spozhyvcha kooperatsiia Ukrainy v roky revoliutsii ta hromadianskoi

viiny (1917 – 1920). [“National Ukrainian Trust”: consumer cooperation of Ukraine during the revolution and civil war (1917 - 1920)].

Cherkasy: Vertykal, vydavets Kandych S.H. [in Ukrainian].

Kot, N. (2013). Pohliady Pavla Skoropadskoho na ahrarnyi rozvytok Ukrainy (za «Spohadamy»). [Pavel Skoropadsky’s

views on the agrarian development of Ukraine (according to “Memories”)]. Ukrainskyi Selianyn. (Ukrainian peasant), 14, 54 – 56.

[in Ukrainian].

Kornovenko, S. & Morozov, A. (2013). Ahrarne zakonodavstvo Hetmanatu P. Skoropadskoho ta Biloho rukhu Pivdnia

Rosii. [Agrarian legislation of the Hetmanate of P. Skoropadsky and the White Movement of Southern Russia.]. Natsionalna ta

istorychna pamiat. (National and historical memory), 7, 131 – 139. [in Ukrainian].

Kovalova, N., Kornovenko, S., Malynovskyi, B., Mykhailiuk, O. & Morozov, A. (2007). Ahrarna polityka v Ukraini periodu

natsionalno-demokratychnoi revoliutsii (1917 – 1921). [Agrarian policy in Ukraine during the national-democratic revolution (1917 -

]. Cherkasy: Ant, 2007. [in Ukrainian].

Pyrih, R. (2006). Zemelna reforma hetmana Pavla Skoropadskoho: sproby provedennia ta prychyny nevdachi. [Land reform

of Hetman Pavel Skoropadsky: attempts and reasons for failure]. Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal. (Ukrainian Historical Journal),3,

– 84. [in Ukrainian].

Wrangel, P. (1991). Zapiski (noyabr 1916 – noyabr 1920 gg.). [Notes (November 1916 - November 1920)]. Moskva, 1. [in


Wrangel, P. (1992). Vospominaniya barona P. Vrangelya. [Memoirs of Baron P. Wrangel]. Moskva, 1. [in Russian].

General Vrangel i krestyane. [General Wrangel and the peasants]. (1920) Tavricheskiy golos. (Tauride voice), 248. [in


V. fon Dreyer, V. (1921). Krestnyiy put vo imya Rodinyi. Dvuhletnyaya voyna krasnogo Severa s belyim Yugom, 1918–

[Way of the Cross in the name of the Motherland. The two-year war between the red North and the white South, 1918–1920.].

Berlin. [in Russian].

Ross, N. (1982). Vrangel v Kryimu. [Wrangel in the Crimea]. Frankfurt-na-Mayne. [in Russian].

Central State Archive of Public Associations of Ukraine, Fund 57, Inventory 2, File 428 [in Ukrainian].

Kornovenko, S. (2009). Bilyi rukh Pivdnia Rosii: ahrarna polityka uriadiv A. Denikina, P. Vranhelia (1919 – 1920). [he

White Movement of Southern Russia: Agrarian Policy of the Governments of A. Denikin and P. Wrangel (1919-1920)]. Cherkasy:

Ant. [in Ukrainian].