Fire prevention in ukrainian villages at the beginning of the becoming of totalitarian regime in USSR (1928-1931)

Main Article Content

Mykhailo I. Kharlamov

Abstract

Introduction. It is a well-known fact that fi re prevention is the best way to reduce fi res and casualties
among the population. Not in vain that the motto of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine is – «Prevent. Save.
Help», where in the fi rst place is the prevention of accidents. During 2020, 101,279 fi res were registered in Ukraine,
as a result of which 1,728 people died, and material losses from fi res amounted to 12 billions 606 millions 904
thousands uah. That is why turning scientifi c interest to retrospective problems of fi re prevention in Ukrainian
villages is relevant and socially signifi cant, because taking into account domestic historical experience, in my
opinion, could help improve the current system of preventive fi re prevention in rural areas.
Purpose. The purpose of this scientifi c publication is researching the features of fi re prevention in the villages
of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic at the beginning of the period of becoming of the totalitarian regime in
the USSR (1928-1931).
Methods. The methodological basis of the article is a combination of general scientifi c methods of cognition
with the using of scientifi c and critical analysis of sources. The subject of research determines the application of
methods of analysis and synthesis, methods of empirical research, historical-comparative and historical-systemic
methods.
Results. The author substantiate that the from 1928 to 1931, fi refi ghting in rural areas of Ukraine was
handled by district and village bodies of state fi re supervision (SFS). The fi re communities of volunteers also
fought with fi res. The fi re communities of volunteers included fi re brigades of volunteers-fi refi ghters. The district
bodies of the SFS dealt with the following matters: management, control and care of fi re safety in all organizations
(collective farms, state farms), institutions, warehouses, etc., which were located within a particular district. The
village bodies of the SFS were accountable to the district administration. Village fi re instructors and fi re chiefs
as employees of rural fi re-fi ghting organizations monitored the state of fi re safety in settlements, collective farms,
state farms and communes. They supervised the maintenance of fi re stations and rural fi refi ghting equipment. They
took care of the condition of the reservoirs for the needs of fi re protection, and the entrances to them. In case of
any problems, the employees of the village bodies of the SFS appealed to the village council in order to quickly
eliminate the shortcomings.
The author study that the state fi re control bodies of the USSR in the late 1920s - in the early 1930s, were
created and approved the fi re safety rules for collective farms, state farms, machine-tractor stations, machinetractor workshops, etc. The members of rural fi re brigades and organizations relied on these instructions in the
matter of proper preventive maintenance of the state of fi re safety in the villages of the USSR in the historical
period, which is investigating.
The author substantiate that the any collective farm, state farm in the USSR had to be provided with adequate
water supply in accordance with the rules and instructions of industrial construction, approved in 1929. If rural
organizations were located near water bodies, regardless of the water supply system, they had to equip a site with
fi re barrels and pumps, to which a good paved road was to lead. It was forbidden to clutter up playgrounds and
driveways, in winter the peasants had to clear them of snow. This was followed by fi re village elders.
Originality. The problems of fi re prevention in Ukrainian villages in this historical period have not been
investigated by ukrainian and foreign scientists. Therefore, the scientifi c novelty of this work, according to the
author, does not cause objections.
Conclusion. Despite certain problems, coordinated activities between district and village bodies of the SFS
and offi cials responsible for fi re prevention in collective farms, state farms, machine-tractor stations, machinetractor workshops in the USSR in 1928-1931 led to gradual reduction of the level of «fi re» in Ukrainian villages.
Scientifi c research on fi re prevention in Ukrainian villages during the heyday of the totalitarian regime in the
USSR, as well as in the postwar period, is promising

Article Details

How to Cite
Kharlamov М. І. . (2021). Fire prevention in ukrainian villages at the beginning of the becoming of totalitarian regime in USSR (1928-1931). Ukrainian Peasant, (26). https://doi.org/10.31651/2413-8142-2021-26-Kharlamov
Section
Селянство за умов соціокультурних, соціально-економічнихта суспільно-політичних трансформацій ХІХ – ХХ ст
Author Biography

Mykhailo I. Kharlamov, National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine

Dr. Sci.(Hist.),head of the department of social and humanitarian disciplines of the faculty of psychology activity
in special condition, National University of Civil Defence of Ukraine,
Kharkiv, Ukraine
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5289-0290
e-mail:mike1982kharlamov@gmail.com

References

Analitychna dovidka pro pozhezhi ta yikh naslidky v Ukrayini za 12 misyatsiv 2020 roku. [Analytical report on fi res and their consequences

in Ukraine for 12 months of 2020]. Retrieved from https://www.dsns.gov.ua/ua/Dovidka-za-kvartal/119288.html [in Ukrainian].

Chechersʹkyy, A. (1934). Pʺyatyrichnyy plan rozvytku dobrovilʹnoyi pozhezhnoyi sluzhby i pozhezhnoyi okhorony v silʹsʹkomu sektori

Zaporizʹkoho rayonu Dnipropetrovsʹkoyi oblasti. Z dodatkom tablytsʹ, protokoliv, narad ta vytyahiv z postanov uryadu. [ Five-year plan for

the development of voluntary fi re service and fi re protection in the rural sector of Zaporozhye district of Dnipropetrovsk region. With the

addition of tables, minutes, meetings and extracts from government decrees]. Zaporizhzhya : Zaporizʹke rayonne pozhezhne tovarystvo imeni

Dzerzhynsʹkoho. [in Ukrainian].

Kucher, G. & Usatenko, L. (1969). Pokoriteli ognya : iz istorii pozharnoy okhrany Kiyevshchiny. [Conquerors of fi re : from the history of

the fi re department of the Kiev region]. Kiyev : Izdaniye MVD USSR. [in Russian].

Nekhayev, V. & Sertsov, M. (1997). Ognebortsy Zaporozh’ya : ocherki istorii i deyatel’nosti pozharnoy okhrany Zaporozhskoy oblasti.

[Firefi ghters of Zaporozhye: essays on the history and activities of the fi re protection of the Zaporozhye region]. Zaporozh’ye. [in Russian].

Litvyakov, F. (2014). Odessa v otbleskakh pozharov. [Odessa in the refl ections of fi res]. Odessa : Pechatnyy dom. [in Russian].

Litvyakov, F. & Antipov, Y. (2002). 200 let na linii ognya. [200 years on the line of fi re]. Odessa : Astroprint. [in Russian].

Smirnov, G. (1996). Istoricheskaya khronika pozharnoy okhrany Luganska. [Historical chronicle of the fi re brigade of Lugansk]. Lugansk

: Izdatel’stvo «Lugan’». [in Russian].

Pikul, О. & Chernetsky, U. & Yarmola, O. (1999). Istoriya pozhezhnoyi spravy Biloyi Tserkvy. [History of the fi re service of Bila Tserkva].

Bila Tserkva : Tovarystvo okhorony starozhytnostey Kyyivshchyny. [in Ukrainian].

Tomchyshyn, P. & Sibiga, P. & Yanishen, V. & Larina, V. (2015). Istoriya pozhezhno-ryatuvalʹnoyi spravy Khmelʹnychchyny. [History of

fi re and rescue affair of Khmelnytsky region]. Khmelnytsky. [in Ukrainian].

Muzychenko, O. & Bystra, N. & Mamalyha, V. & Kysilʹ, M. (2008). U dvoboyi z vohnem. Pozhezhna okhorona stolytsi. [In a duel with

fi re. Fire protection of the capital]. Kyiv : Alterpress. [in Ukrainian].

Poltanov, O. & Domansky, V. & Ochkala, V. & Kostyleva, L. (1998). Istoriya pozhezhnoyi okhorony Kirovohradshchyny : (1841–1997).

[History of fi re protection of Kirovograd region : (1841–1997)]. Dnipropetrovsʹk : Dnipropetrovsʹka knyzhkova drukarnya. [in Ukrainian].

Kotelʹnykov, S. (2018). Vohnebortsi. Istoriya pozhezhnytstva na terenakh suchasnoyi Ukrayiny : Naukovo-populyarne vydannya.

[Firefi ghters. History of fi refi ghting in modern Ukraine : Popular science publication]. Kyiv : TOV «Kyyivsʹka knyzhkovo zhurnalʹna

fabryka». [in Ukrainian].

Tomilenko, A. (2016). Stvorennya ta rozvytok vidomchoyi pozhezhnoyi okhorony Narodnoho komisariatu zemelʹnykh sprav USRR.

[Creation and development of departmental fi re protection of the People’s Commissariat of Land Affairs of the USSR]. Humanitarnyy visnyk.

[Humanitarian Bulletin]. 26 (10), 117–125. [in Ukrainian].

Tomilenko, A. (2018). Stvorennya ta rozvytok derzhavnoyi systemy preventyvnykh protypozhezhnykh zakhodiv v Ukrayini u druhiy

polovyni 20-kh – 30-ti roky ХХ stolittya. [Creation and development of the state system of preventive fi re-fi ghting measures in Ukraine in the

second half of the 20s - 30s of the XX century]. Humanitarnyy visnyk. [Humanitarian Bulletin]. 28 (12), 109–118. [in Ukrainian].

Tsentralʹnyy derzhavnyy arkhiv vyshchykh orhaniv vlady i upravlinnya Ukrayiny (dali TsDAVO Ukrayiny). [Central State Archives of

Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine (hereinafter – CSASBPGU)]. Fond 559. Opys 1. Sprava 139. [in Russian].

TsDAVO Ukrayiny. [CSASBPGU]. Fond 27. Opys 11. Sprava 2194. [in Russian]