Main Article Content
Introduction. The urgent task today is to identify the relationships and determination of the way of life of peasants with
revolutionary and state-building processes, the infl uence of the peasantry on the ideology and policy of various forms of statehood
in Dnieper Ukraine, elucidating the origins and preconditions of Ukrainian peasantry.
Purpose. The purpose of the article is to defi ne the essential characteristics of the Ukrainian society of Dnieper Ukraine
of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries, to determine its type, to fi nd out what basic elements became the basis for
Ukrainian agrarianism as a peasant-centric phenomenon of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921.
Methods. The methodological basis of the study is a socio-cultural approach, which allows to explain how ethnic and social
norms, values, ideals, stereotypes, traditions of the Ukrainian peasantry inherent in agrarian society largely determined sociopolitical processes and infl uenced the emergence of domestic agrarianism in 1917-1921.
Results. At the beginning of the twentieth century despite the modernization processes, the Ukrainian society of the Dnieper
region remained largely an agrarian society, which was determined by the following characteristics: the dominance of the
peasantry in the social structure; life in the system of interaction “man-nature”, land as the greatest good and basic value,
dominance in the economy of agricultural production with the use of simple technologies; social organization of the patriarchal
type, the importance of the institution of the family, the existence of the family peasant economy as the main production unit, which
has a natural-consumer character; the importance of the rural community as a social integrator with its economic, administrative
and social functions; solidarity in the community and distrust of the outside world (state, city, gentlemen, etc.); traditional system
of social norms and values, the defi ning place of manual labor as a high value, moral duty, social status and legitimization of
property and wealth; peasant notions of justice and the dominance of customary law; locality of interests, particularism, low social
mobility; conservatism, inertia, low perception of innovations, focus on stability; the peasant consciousness has a patriarchalreligious character, the lack of mass education; low national identity, the relationship of peasant social and national demands.
Originality. The results of the research obtained by the author are scientifi cally signifi cant and new. They signifi cantly
expand and supplement previous knowledge about the grounds for the formation of Ukrainian agrarianism.
Conclusion. The article identifi es the essential characteristics of the Ukrainian society of the Dnieper region and states that
in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries it was a society of a predominantly agrarian type. It was found that the reasons
for the formation of domestic agrarianism in the days of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917 - 1921 were: in the economic sphere
- agricultural production, the main subject of labor in which is land and constantly associated with the activities of the peasant;
in the political sphere - peasant democracy in the form of self-government of the rural community; in the social sphere - the
contradiction between the “small local society” of the village and the “big society” personifi ed by the city and the government;
in the legal sphere - the vision of social justice, which existed in customary law, where the right of ownership is associated with
manual labor; in the spiritual and socio-cultural sphere - the traditional patriarchal nature of the peasant consciousness
Authors published in this journal agree to the following terms.
1. The authors reserve the right to be an author of their work and grant the journal the right to first publish the work under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0), which allows others to freely distribute the published work with a mandatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. Authors have the right to make separate additional agreements for non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal (for example, to post in an electronic repository of the institution or to publish in a monograph) maintaining the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal.
3. The journal policy allows and encourages the submission of manuscripts by the authors on the Internet (for example, in repositories of institutions or on personal websites) both before the submission to the editor and during its editorial revision since it promotes productive scientific discussion and has a positive impact on the promptness and dynamics of citing the published work.
AGREEMENTABOUT TRANSMISSION OF COPYRIGHT
I, the author of the article / We, the authors of the manuscript __________________________________________________________________
in case of its acceptance for publication, we transfer the following rights to the founders and editorial boards of the scientific journal “Ukrainian Peasant”:
1. Publication of this article in Ukrainian (English, Russian, Polish, Belarusian) and distribution of its printed version.
2. Distribution of the electronic version of the article through any electronic means (placing on the official journal web site, in electronic databases, repositories, etc.). At the same time, we reserve the right without consent of the editorial board and the founders:
1. To use article materials in full or in part for educational purposes.
2. To use article materials in full or in part for writing our own dissertations.
3. To use article materials to prepare abstracts, conference reports, and oral presentations.
4. To post electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic version downloaded from the journal’s official website) to:
a. personal web-resources of all authors (web sites, web pages, blogs, etc.);
b. web-resources of the institutions where the authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);
с. non-profit open-access web-resources (such as arXiv.org).
With this agreement, we also certify that the submitted manuscript meets the following criteria:
1. Does not contain calls for violence, inciting racial or ethnic enmity, which are disturbing, threatening, shameful, libelous, cruel, obscene, vulgar, etc.
2. Does not infringe on the copyrights and intellectual property rights of others or organizations; contains all the references to the cited authors and / or publications envisaged by applicable copyright law, as well as the results and facts used in the article by other authors or organizations.
3. It has not been previously published in other publishers and has not been published in other editions.
4. Does not include material that is not subject to publication in the open press, in accordance with current law.
signature Author’s name
Kornovenko, S. & Pasichna, Y. (2019) Eastern european agrarianism. Ukrainian intellectual space in the late 19th and early
th centuries. Ukrayins’kyy selyanyn (Ukrainian peasant). 22. 24–29. [in English]
Kornovenko, S. & Tel’vak, V. (2020) Ahraryzm yak selyanotsentrychnyy fenomen krayin Tsentral’noyi ta Pivdenno-Skhidnoyi
Yevropy druhoyi polovyny ХІХ – pershoyi tretyny ХХ st.: vytoky i sutnist’ yavyshcha. [Agrarianism as a peasant-centric phenomenon
in Central and South-Eastern Europe in the second half of the nineteenth - fi rst third of the twentieth century: the origins and essence
of the phenomenon]. Ukrayins’kyy selyanyn (Ukrainian peasant). 24.10-16. [in Ukrainian]
Kornovenko, S. (2020) Khutirs’ka fi losofi ya P.Kulisha: bilya dzherel ukrayins’koho ahraryzmu. [Farm philosophy of P.
Kulish: near the sources of Ukrainian agrarianism]. Ukrayins’kyy istorychnyy zhurnal (Ukrainian Historical Journal). 5. 64-76.[in
Halushko, K. (2000) «Khliborobs’ka ideolohiya» V. Lypyns’koho u systemi skhidnoyevropeys’koho ahraryzmu. [«Agricultural
ideology» V. Lypynsky in the system of Eastern European agrarianism]. Ukrayins’kyy istorychnyy zbirnyk. (Ukrainian historical
collection). 2. 164-200. [in Ukrainian]
Kornovenko, S. (2017) Sub’yektnyy skladnyk ahrarnoho pytannya yak odna z peredumov Ukrayins’koyi revolyutsiyi
-1921 rr. [Subjective component of the agrarian question as one of the prerequisites of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921].
Ukrayins’kyy istorychnyy zhurnal. (Ukrainian Historical Journal). 4. 83-94. [in Ukrainian].
Kravchenko, B. (1997) Sotsial’ni zminy i natsional’na svidomist’ v Ukrayini ХХ st. [Social change and national consciousness
in Ukraine in the twentieth century]. Kyiv: Osnovy. [in Ukrainian]
Kysel’ov, M. (1995) Fenomen zemlerobstva v ukrayins’komu sviti. [The phenomenon of agriculture in the Ukrainian world].
Geneza. (Genesis). 1 (3). 59-66. [in Ukrainian]
Zybtsev, V. & Popov V. (2005) Hospodars’kyy mentalitet Ukrayiny: teoriya, istoriya ta suchasnyy stan. [Economic mentality
of Ukraine: theory, history and current state]. Donets’k: Nord-Press. [in Ukrainian]
Kolysnychenko, D. (2006) Vserossyyskyy krest’yanskyy soyuz v 1905-1907. [All-Russian Peasants’ Union in 1905-1907].
Moskva: Ynstytut rossyyskoy ystoryy RAN,
Koval’ova, N. (2020) Selyans’ka revolyutsiya v Naddnipryans’kiy Ukrayini (1902– 1922). [Peasant revolution in the Dnieper
Ukraine (1902-1922)]. Doctor’s thesis. [in Ukrainian]
Mytsyuk, O. (1925) Ahrarna polityka (1800-1925 rr.). [Agrarian policy (1800-1925)]. Podebrady: Publication «Publishing
House at Ukr. Mr. Academy in Czechoslovakia». [in Ukrainian]
Klunnyy, H. (1921) Do pytannya pro zemel’nu polityku na Ukrayini: v dyskusiynomu poryadkovi. Dlya chleniv KP (b) U.
[On the issue of land policy in Ukraine: in a debatable manner. For members of the CP (b) U]. Kyiv: Derzhavne vydavnytstvo.[in
Kachyns’kyy, V. (1919) Sotsyalyzatsyya sel’skoho khazyaystva na Ukrayne. [Socialization of agriculture in Ukraine]. Kiev:
Borba Publishing House. [in Russian]
Khramova, V. (1992) Do problemy ukrayins’koyi mental’nosti. Zamist’ peredmovy. Ukrayins’ka dusha. [To the problem of
Ukrainian mentality. Instead of a preface. Ukrainian soul]. Kyiv: Phoenix. [in Ukrainian]
Polishchuk, I. (2001) Mental’nist’ ukrayinstva: politychnyy aspekt. [The mentality of Ukrainians: the political aspect].
Lyudyna i polityka. (Man and politics), 1, 86-92. [in Ukrainian]
Hordon, A. Krest’yanstvo vostoka: ystorycheskyy sub’ekt, kul’turnaya tradytsyya, sotsyal’naya obshchnost’[Peasantry of the
East: Historical Subject, Cultural Tradition, Social Community]. Moskva: Nauka, 1989. [in Russian]
Koval’ova, N., Kornovenko, S., Malynovs’kyy, B., Mykhaylyuk, O. & Morozov, A. (2007) Ahrarna polityka v Ukrayini
periodu natsional’no-demokratychnoyi revolyutsiyi (1917-1921). [Agrarian policy in Ukraine during the national-democratic
revolution (1917-1921)]. Cherkasy: Ant.[in Ukrainian]
Istoriya ukrayins’koho selyanstva. (2006) Narysy v 2-kh tomakh. [History of the Ukrainian peasantry]. Kyiv: Naukova
Dumka, 1. [in Ukrainian]
Hrymych, M. (2006) Zvychayeve tsyvil’ne pravo ukrayintsiv ХІХ-ХХ stolittya. [Customary civil law of Ukrainians of the
XIX - early XX centuries]. Kyiv: Aristei.[in Ukrainian]
Nahorna, A. (1998) Politychna kul’tura ukrayins’koho narodu: istorychna perspektyva i suchasni realiyi. [Political culture of
the Ukrainian people: historical perspective and modern realities]. Kyiv: Stylos. [in Ukrainian]
Moisyeyeva, N. (1998) Mental’nist’ i mistseve samovryaduvannya: vzayemozv’yazok, problemy, protyrichchya. [Mentality
and local self-government: interrelation, problems, contradictions]. Doctor’s thesis. Kharkiv. [in Ukrainian]
Antonovych, V. (1995) Try natsional’ni typy narodni. Moya spovid’: vybrani istorychni ta publitsystychni tvory. [Three
national types of folk. My confession: selected historical and journalistic works]. Kyiv: Lybid. [in Ukrainian]
Shanyn, T. (2003) Obychnoe pravo v krest’yanskom soobshchestve. . [Common law in the peasant community].
Obshchestvennye nauky y sovremennost’. (Social sciences and modernity), 1, 116-121. [in Russian]
Dubrovskyy, S. (1923) Ocherky russkoy revolyutsyy. Sel’s’koe khazyaystvo. [Essays on the Russian Revolution], 1. Moskva:
Publishing House of the People’s Commissariat of Land «New Village».[in Russian]
Verstyuk, V. (1992) Makhnovshchyna: selyans’kyy povstans’kyy rukh na Ukrayini (1918-1921). [Makhnovshchyna: peasant
insurgent movement in Ukraine (1918-1921)]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]
Hryhoriyiv, N. (1941) Ukrayins’ka natsional’na vdacha. [Ukrainian national character]. Winnipeg: Publication of the
Ukrainian Publishing Union in Canada.[in Ukrainian]
Bovua, D. (1998) Bytva za zemlyu v Ukrayini 1863-1914. Polyaky v sotsio - etnichnykh konfl iktakh. [The Battle for Land
in Ukraine 1863-1914. Poles in socio - ethnic confl icts]. Kyiv: Krytyka. [in Ukrainian]
Hrytsak, Y. (1996) Narys istoriyi Ukrayiny. Formuvannya modernoyi ukrayins’koyi natsiyi ХІХ-ХХ st. [Essay on the history
of Ukraine. Formation of the modern Ukrainian nation of the XIX-XX centuries]. Kyiv: Geneza. [in Ukrainian]
Dychkovs’ka, H. (1996) Svitohlyadni aspekty ukrayins’koho derzhavotvorennya v konteksti ideyi spravedlyvosti. [Worldview
aspects of Ukrainian statehood in the context of the idea of justice]. Heneza (Genesis), 1-2 (6-7), 194-195. [in Ukrainian]
Kovalevs’kyy, M. (1960) Pry dzherelakh borot’by: spomyny, vrazhennya, refl eksiyi. [At the sources of struggle: memories,
impressions, refl ections]. Innsbruck: Published by Maria Kovalevskaya, Biblos. [in Ukrainian]
Chykalenko, Y. (1931) Shchodennyk (1907-1917). [Diary (1907-1917)]. Lviv: Chervona Kalyna.[in Ukrainian]
Kryzhanivs’ka, O. Selyans’ke hospodaryuvannya. [Peasant management] Kyiv: Naukova dumka. [in Ukrainian]