Ukrainian Peasant <div align="justify"><a class="img-link" target="_blank"><img class="img-responsive" style="float: left; margin: 5px 10px 5px 0;" title="Ukrainian Peasant" src="" alt="Ukrainian Peasant" /></a> <p class="help-block"><span lang="EN-GB">Materials of the collection of scientific works offered to the reader cover the traditional circuit of issues related to the agrarian history. The authors of the articles shed light on various aspects of peasantry history, particularly on the issues of historiography, methodology, source studies, as well as the historical development of peasantry at the main stages of the history development.</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">For a wide range of specialists in Humanities, teachers, post-graduate students, students and everyone, who is interested in agrarian history.</span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Established in: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">2000</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Topics: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Publication of research results on the history of peasantry and other social strata of agricultural population, the development of agriculture and current issues of the village</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Abstract databases: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">abstracts database Ukrainika Naukova (Ukrainian Peasant,</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN:<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> </a></span></strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span lang="EN-GB">2413-8142</span></a> (Print)</p> <p class="help-block"> <strong><a href=""> </a></strong><a href="">2788-5364</a> (Online)</p> <p>The collection is indexed in international databases:</p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">Index Сopernicus <strong><span lang="EN-GB">ICV 2020: 84.13</span></strong></a></span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";S=0">Directory of Research Journals Indexing</a></span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><strong><strong><a href="">Scientific Indexing Services</a> </strong></strong></span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><strong><strong><a href="">Ulrich's Periodicals Directory</a></strong></strong></span></strong> </p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href=";lookfor=%D0%A3%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%97%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9+%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8F%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BD&amp;ling=1&amp;oaboost=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresua&amp;newsearch=1">Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE)</a></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href=";arg3=%D0%A3%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%97%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9%20%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8F%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BD">Polythematic database of articles</a></strong> from periodicals of the National Parliamentary Library of Ukraine</p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href=";from_ui=yes">Crossref</a> </strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href="">Open Ukrainian Citation Index</a></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href="">EuroPub database</a></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><a href=";p=0&amp;n=10&amp;s=_score&amp;d=%2B&amp;f=false&amp;e=false&amp;l=en&amp;authorField=author&amp;dateFilterField=publishedYear&amp;orderBy=%2B_score&amp;presentation=false&amp;stemmed=true&amp;useAuthorId=false&amp;sourceTitle.must=Ukrainian%20Peasant"><strong>LENS.ORG </strong></a></p> <p class="help-block"><a href=""><strong><strong><strong>InfoBase Index</strong> </strong></strong></a></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href="">Scilit</a></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href=";search_text=10.31651%2F2413-8142&amp;search_type=kws&amp;search_field=full_search" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dimensions</a></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">State registration certificate: </span></strong><a href=";I21DBN=UJRN&amp;P21DBN=UJRN&amp;Z21ID=&amp;Image_file_name=IMG%2FUkrsel_s.jpg&amp;IMAGE_FILE_DOWNLOAD=0&gt; EN-GB">KV No. 16452-4924R dated 02.02.2010</a></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.</a></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><strong>Platform <a href="">Open Journal Systems</a></strong></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Specialized scientific publication registration at the State Accrediting Committee of Ukraine: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">The Decision of the Higher Attestation Committee dated 22.12.2010 No. 1-05/8 (Bulletin of the Higher Attestation Committee of Ukraine, 2011. </span><span lang="AR-SA">– </span><span lang="EN-GB">No. 2);</span>Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine №1238, December 21, 2015; <a href="">Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine №1301, October 15, 2019.</a></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Specialty according to State Accrediting Committee: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">07 </span><span lang="AR-SA">– </span><span lang="EN-GB">Historical Sciences</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Frequency: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">two times per year</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Language of the publication: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">mixed languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Belorussian, Polish, English</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Founder: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Institute of the History of Ukraine of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Executive editor: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor<strong> <a href=""> S.V. Kornovenko</a></strong></span></p> (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)<span lang="UK">.</span> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Deputy executive editors: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor </span></span><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";hl=uk&amp;oi=aoo">A.H. Morozov</a></span></span></strong><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB">(Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)</span></span></span><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="UK">.</span></span></span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Executive secretary:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB"> </span><span lang="EN-GB">Candidate of Historical Sciences</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB"> <a href="">Y. G. Pasichna</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">(</span><span lang="EN-GB">Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine).</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Editorial board: </span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=bUItcpIAAAAJ">V.V. Hotsuliak</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">; </span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";hl=da">L. O. Dubinka-Hushcha</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">PhD (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">K.V. Ivanhorodskyi</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">; </span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">V. I. Ilnytskyi</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor (Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">N.I. Zemziulina</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=Y1Vh_W0AAAAJ">Karev Dmitry</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno, Belarus);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";https:/">Y. M. Kyryliuk</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Economic sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><a href=";user=gJtn7eEAAAAJ">S. V. Kulchytsky</a>,</strong> Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Institute of History of Ukraine NASU (Ukraine); </p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><strong><a href=";https:/;user=AHdmwt0AAAAJ">V. I. Marochko</a>, </strong></span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Institute of History of Ukraine NASU (Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"> <a href=";user=AHdmwt0AAAAJ&gt;V. I. Marochko&lt;/a&gt;, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Institute of History of Ukraine NASU (Ukraine); Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Institute of History of Ukraine NASU (Ukraine);&lt;a href=">T</a></span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=AHdmwt0AAAAJ&gt;V. I. Marochko&lt;/a&gt;, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Institute of History of Ukraine NASU (Ukraine); &lt;a href=">T.V.Marusik</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">V.V. Masnenko</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine</span><span lang="EN-GB">); </span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=7_UCHmsAAAAJ">V.M. Melnychenko</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Candidate of Historical Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">; </span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">Menkovsky Vyacheslav</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Belarusian State University, Belarus);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=kkJXoPgAAAAJ">O.H. Perekhrest</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">M. I. Ratnikov</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">PhD in Political sciences, associate professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">; </span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=VEQJFPIAAAAJ">O.P. Reient</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Institute of History of Ukraine NASU, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">Serdzhenga Pavel</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor Habilitowany, Professor (Poland);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">Z. V. Svyaschenko </a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (PAVLO TYCHYNA UMAN STATE Pedagogical University, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">Stеmpnik Andzej</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor Habilitowany, Professor (Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Poland);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=ftUj7iwAAAAJ">Y. G. Sinkevych</a>,</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB"> Doctor of Historical sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=IwRDiwMAAAAJ">V. V. Telvak</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical sciences, Professor (Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University (Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=hRR2stYAAAAJ">A.I. Temchenko</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">O. P. Trygub</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical sciences, Professor (Black Sea National University, Ukraine);</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=";user=B2aZY7YAAAAJ">A.Yu. Chaban</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmel</span><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB">nytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine);</span></span></p> <p class="help-block"><a style="font-weight: bold;" href=";user=ocTbbWUAAAAJ">O.V. Cherevko</a><span style="font-weight: bold;">,</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB"> </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor (Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy, Ukraine)</span><span lang="EN-GB">;</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="">Šmigeľ Michal</a>, </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor (Univerzita Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici, Slovakia).</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Editorial office address: </span></strong></span></strong><span lang="EN-GB"><span lang="EN-GB">81 Shevchenko Blvd., Cherkasy</span></span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Telephone: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">(097) 211-15-37</span></p> <p class="help-block"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">E-mail:</span></strong></p> <p class="help-block"><strong>Publication web-site address (URL):</strong> <a target="_blank"></a></p> </div> Черкаський національний університет імені Богдана Хмельницького en-US Ukrainian Peasant 2413-8142 <p>Authors published in this journal agree to the following terms.</p><p>1. The authors reserve the right to be an author of their work and grant the journal the right to first publish the work under the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution <span>4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)</span></a>, which allows others to freely distribute the published work with a mandatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.</p><p>2. Authors have the right to make separate additional agreements for non-exclusive distribution of the work in the form in which it was published by this journal (for example, to post in an electronic repository of the institution or to publish in a monograph) maintaining the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal.</p><p>3. The journal policy allows and encourages the submission of manuscripts by the authors on the Internet (for example, in repositories of institutions or on personal websites) both before the submission to the editor and during its editorial revision since it promotes productive scientific discussion and has a positive impact on the promptness and dynamics of citing the published work.</p><p> </p><p align="center"><strong>AGREEMENTABOUT TRANSMISSION OF COPYRIGHT</strong></p><p align="center"> </p><p>I, the author of the article / We, the authors of the manuscript __________________________________________________________________</p><p>in case of its acceptance for publication, we transfer the following rights to the founders and editorial boards of the scientific journal “Ukrainian Peasant”:</p><p>1. Publication of this article in Ukrainian (English, Russian, Polish, Belarusian) and distribution of its printed version.</p><p>2. Distribution of the electronic version of the article through any electronic means (placing on the official journal web site, in electronic databases, repositories, etc.). At the same time, we reserve the right without consent of the editorial board and the founders:</p><p>1. To use article materials in full or in part for educational purposes.</p><p>2. To use article materials in full or in part for writing our own dissertations.</p><p>3. To use article materials to prepare abstracts, conference reports, and oral presentations.</p><p>4. To post electronic copies of the article (including the final electronic version downloaded from the journal’s official website) to:</p><p>a. personal web-resources of all authors (web sites, web pages, blogs, etc.);</p><p>b. web-resources of the institutions where the authors work (including electronic institutional repositories);</p><p>с. non-profit open-access web-resources (such as</p><p>With this agreement, we also certify that the submitted manuscript meets the following criteria:</p><p>1. Does not contain calls for violence, inciting racial or ethnic enmity, which are disturbing, threatening, shameful, libelous, cruel, obscene, vulgar, etc.</p><p>2. Does not infringe on the copyrights and intellectual property rights of others or organizations; contains all the references to the cited authors and / or publications envisaged by applicable copyright law, as well as the results and facts used in the article by other authors or organizations.</p><p>3. It has not been previously published in other publishers and has not been published in other editions.</p><p>4. Does not include material that is not subject to publication in the open press, in accordance with current law.</p><p>____________________ ___________________</p><p><sup>signature</sup> <sup>Author’s name</sup></p><p>"___"__________ 20__</p> Agrarism in Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia in the fi rst third of the 20th century: a comparative analysis <p>Introduction. In the fi rst third of the 20th century the ideology of agrarianism reached the peak of its popularity in<br>the countries of Central and Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, which was marked by the design of its numerous national<br>variants: Bulgarian, Czechoslovak, Polish, Yugoslavic, Romanian, Ukrainian, Hungarian, German and Baltic.<br>The experience of agrarianism in Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia seems especially interesting and valuable. It formed in<br>different political and socio-economic conditions; in many cases these regional options were at the forefront of the agarist<br>movement during the «golden age of the European peasantry» (according to the historian A. Toshkov, – period between world<br>wars, when the «peasantry became a political entity, understood its destiny, realized its purpose and organized itself in defense<br>of the third way, alternative to communism and capitalism»).<br>Purpose is to fi nd out the causes and circumstances of the ideology of agrarianism in Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, to<br>carry out their comparative analysis, to fi nd out their European context.<br>Results. The article offers a comparative analysis of the Bulgarian and Czechoslovak variants of European agrarianism<br>of the fi rst third of the 20th century. The causes and circumstances of agrarianism in Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia are studied,<br>as well as their national features are clarifi ed from the comparative perspective. The activities of political parties of agrarian<br>orientation (Bulgarian Agrarian National Union and Republican Party of Farmers and Peasants in Czechoslovakia) were<br>compared. Their activity at the international level – as a part of the International Agrarian Bureau (Green International) was<br>also found out. Special attention was paid to the contacts between Ukrainian theorists and practitioners of agrarianism with<br>their Czechoslovak and Bulgarian like-minded persons. The reasons and circumstances of the decline in the popularity of the<br>ideology of agrarianism in Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia were explained.<br>Conclusion. The uniqueness of the Bulgarian and Czechoslovak variants of agrarianism of the fi rst third of the 20th<br>century was due to a number of circumstances and facts.<br>Features of Bulgarian agrarianism: 1) the development of agrarian thought in Bulgaria was signifi cantly infl uenced by<br>German and Russian agrarianism; 2) Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (BANU) is one of the oldest and most infl uential<br>political parties of agrarian orientation in Central and Eastern and South-Eastern Europe; 3) the Bulgarian version is a classic<br>example of the traditional version of agrarianism, focused on small and medium-sized peasants households; 4) Bulgarian<br>agrarianism was the most radical variant of agrarian ideology, which, in contrast to the democratic tactics inherent in<br>agrarianism, advocated the idea of establishing a dictatorship; 5) the ideology of Bulgarian agrarianism of the fi rst third of<br>the 20th century had anti-urban, anti-Semitic and religious aspects; 6) Bulgarian agrarians were the fi rst among the agrarian<br>parties of Central and Southeastern Europe to come to power (1919), but also lost it fi rst (1923); 7) BANU became the only<br>agrarian party in Europe that ever came to power with a majority government, not just as part of a coalition.<br>Features of Czechoslovak agrarianism: 1) the development of agrarian thought in Czechoslovakia was signifi cantly<br>infl uenced by French agrarianism; 2) Czechoslovakia had the most developed industry (after Germany) in Central and Eastern<br>Europe, and also had a relatively democratic political system, which created specifi c conditions for the development of agrarian<br>ideology in the interwar period; 3) the agrarian parties of Czechoslovakia maintained strong positions in parliament and<br>government throughout the interwar period; 4) the popularity of agrarianism in Czechoslovakia persisted until the end of the<br>1930’s, when in other countries of Central and Southeastern Europe it declined or disappeared; 5) Czechoslovak agrarianism<br>of the interwar period was marked by the most extensive network of periodicals in Europe; 6) the Czechoslovak organization<br>was the most powerful in the International Agrarian Bureau; 7) focused on farming, the Czechoslovak variant was one of<br>the most moderate and most progressive variants of agrarianism; 8) at the turn of the 1920’s and 1930’s, active cooperation<br>between Czechoslovak and Ukrainian agrarians was maintained, the most notable center of which was the Ukrainian Agrarian<br>Society in Podebrady.<br>Despite a number of differences and peculiarities of the program principles of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union<br>and the Czech Agrarian Party, their ideology was based on peasant centrism, as evidenced by the link between the political and<br>socio-economic future of Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia and the peasantry/</p> Oleksiy Kompaniiets Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Kompaniiets Agrarianist practices of resolving the agrarian issue during the period of the Ukrainian revolution (1917 – 1921) <p>Introduction. The authors reveal that one of the phenomena of Central-South-Eastern European history of the second half<br>of the XIX – fi rst third of the XX century, in particular the revolutionary upheavals of the early XX century, was agrarianism.<br>It was the offi cial policy of the governments of Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and so on. Ukraine in the early<br>twentieth century wasn’t an exception, given the agrarian nature of the then Ukrainian society. During the years of the<br>Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1921, which, among other things, had a distinctly peasant character, the agrarian practices of<br>P. Skoropadsky and P. Wrangel were marked by the agrarianist content.<br>Purpose. The authors of the article, taking into account the phenomenal nature of agrarianism, the peasant character of<br>the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921, aim to study Ukrainian agrarianism (agrarianist practices) as a component of domestic<br>economic governmental policy aimed at solving the agrarian/peasant issue in Ukraine in 1917-1921.<br>Results. First, these leaders understood the peasantry as an active subject of history, the social basis of the state. They<br>also had a corresponding attitude to the peasantry, which is refl ected in legislation and agricultural policy. Second, they<br>understood agricultural policy broadly as a component of domestic economic policy, containing socio-economic and sociopolitical components. Socio-economic part – land reform and settlement of current agricultural affairs: improving land<br>management, improving agro-technical land cultivation, providing peasant households with agricultural equipment, seeds,<br>working cattle and more. Socio-political aspect – forms and methods of cooperation between the authorities and the peasantry,<br>the subjectivization of the peasantry in the current political and legal model of the state.<br>Conclusion. Third, both P. Skoropadsky and P. Wrangel sought not a monarchical, not a socialist, but an alternative way,<br>and were supporters of an innovative model of agricultural development. In their understanding – highly cultured peasant<br>households. Fourth, the instrument of subjectivization of the peasantry – the social basis of the state for them was private<br>peasant ownership of land. The latter was considered the foundation of culture and civilization, the inviolable principle of<br>existence of the state. Providing peasants with private ownership of land and a signifi cant restriction on large land holdings is<br>the cornerstone of the agrarian practices of P. Skoropadsky and P. Wrangel.</p> Serhii Kornovenko Viktoria Telvak Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Kornovenko-Telvak Agricultural type of Ukrainian society of the Naddnipriansk region of the second half of the 19th - early 20th century: grounds for the formation of the fundamentals of domestic agrarism during the period of the revolution of 1917 – 1921 <p>Introduction. The urgent task today is to identify the relationships and determination of the way of life of peasants with<br>revolutionary and state-building processes, the infl uence of the peasantry on the ideology and policy of various forms of statehood<br>in Dnieper Ukraine, elucidating the origins and preconditions of Ukrainian peasantry.<br>Purpose. The purpose of the article is to defi ne the essential characteristics of the Ukrainian society of Dnieper Ukraine<br>of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries, to determine its type, to fi nd out what basic elements became the basis for<br>Ukrainian agrarianism as a peasant-centric phenomenon of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921.<br>Methods. The methodological basis of the study is a socio-cultural approach, which allows to explain how ethnic and social<br>norms, values, ideals, stereotypes, traditions of the Ukrainian peasantry inherent in agrarian society largely determined sociopolitical processes and infl uenced the emergence of domestic agrarianism in 1917-1921.<br>Results. At the beginning of the twentieth century despite the modernization processes, the Ukrainian society of the Dnieper<br>region remained largely an agrarian society, which was determined by the following characteristics: the dominance of the<br>peasantry in the social structure; life in the system of interaction “man-nature”, land as the greatest good and basic value,<br>dominance in the economy of agricultural production with the use of simple technologies; social organization of the patriarchal<br>type, the importance of the institution of the family, the existence of the family peasant economy as the main production unit, which<br>has a natural-consumer character; the importance of the rural community as a social integrator with its economic, administrative<br>and social functions; solidarity in the community and distrust of the outside world (state, city, gentlemen, etc.); traditional system<br>of social norms and values, the defi ning place of manual labor as a high value, moral duty, social status and legitimization of<br>property and wealth; peasant notions of justice and the dominance of customary law; locality of interests, particularism, low social<br>mobility; conservatism, inertia, low perception of innovations, focus on stability; the peasant consciousness has a patriarchalreligious character, the lack of mass education; low national identity, the relationship of peasant social and national demands.<br>Originality. The results of the research obtained by the author are scientifi cally signifi cant and new. They signifi cantly<br>expand and supplement previous knowledge about the grounds for the formation of Ukrainian agrarianism.<br>Conclusion. The article identifi es the essential characteristics of the Ukrainian society of the Dnieper region and states that<br>in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries it was a society of a predominantly agrarian type. It was found that the reasons<br>for the formation of domestic agrarianism in the days of the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917 - 1921 were: in the economic sphere<br>- agricultural production, the main subject of labor in which is land and constantly associated with the activities of the peasant;<br>in the political sphere - peasant democracy in the form of self-government of the rural community; in the social sphere - the<br>contradiction between the “small local society” of the village and the “big society” personifi ed by the city and the government;<br>in the legal sphere - the vision of social justice, which existed in customary law, where the right of ownership is associated with<br>manual labor; in the spiritual and socio-cultural sphere - the traditional patriarchal nature of the peasant consciousness</p> Vitalii Lozovyi Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Lozovyi Agrarianism: a new concept of understanding the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The article defi nes the concepts of agrarian history of the period of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917 – 1921. The essence<br>of the defi nition “concept” is analysed and the peculiarities of its application to the agrarian history of the period of the<br>Ukrainian revolution are outlined. The concept of agrarianism as one of the agrarian concepts of the period of the Ukrainian<br>revolution of 1917 – 1921 is investigated</span> </p> Yulia Pasichna Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Pasichna The contribution of professor Irynarkh Shchogolіv (1873–1943) in the development of Ukrainian scientifi c natural terminology <p>Introduction. On the way to European integration, issues of Ukrainian scientifi c terminology remain important and relevant.<br>The approval of new innovative developments, the development of educational concepts and the popularization of the achievements<br>of domestic science depend on its clarity and unambiguity. Scientifi c interest is to study the historical progress of the enrichment of<br>the Ukrainian scientifi c language as a means of developing national science and education in the context of studying the heritage of<br>outstanding agricultural scientists.<br>Purpose of the article is to investigate the contribution of Professor Irynarh M. Shchogoliv (1873–1943) to the development of<br>Ukrainian scientifi c natural terminology.<br>Methods. The methodology is based on the general scientifi c principles of historical knowledge: historicism, objectivity,<br>systematization, complexity, scientifi city, multifactoriality and comprehensiveness. In addition, important importance is attached to<br>the use of general scientifi c methods (analysis, synthesis, generalization), interdisciplinary (statistical, bibliographic) and historical<br>(problem-chronological, descriptive, historical-systemic, comparative-historical, periodization, personalization). Methods of source<br>and archival analysis are also involved in the research process.<br>Results. The fi rst organizational attempts to systematize terminological work in the Ukrainian lands took place after the political<br>thaw of 1905. Archival research has shown that during I. Shchogoliv’s studies at the agricultural department of the Kyiv Polytechnic<br>Institute in 1906–1910, scientifi c circles played an important role in attracting students to the community work and deepening of the<br>acquired knowledge. In 1906, student I. Shchogoliv became a secretary (clerk) of the «Circle of Naturalists» under the leadership of<br>O. Yanata. The greatest scientifi c interest is the activity of the Ukrainian Terminological Commission, established in 1910 with the<br>participation of S. Veselovsky, I. Shchogoliv and O. Yanata. We have found out that I. Shchogoliv took part in expeditions to select<br>and systematize the terminological material from printed sources and collect folk names that remained unnoticed. I. Shchogoliv was<br>involved in a project to study the nature of Ukraine as part of a special Commission for Regional Studies of «Circle of Naturalists».<br>In addition, he served as its secretary.<br>During the Ukrainian revolution, Professor I. Shchogoliv worked in the Ukrainian Scientifi c Society as a member of the<br>natural and agronomic sections. He systematized the materials for the dictionary of zoological terminology. In 1918, I. Shchogoliv’s<br>«Dictionary of Ukrainian Entomological Nomenclature» was published.<br>In 1927, two parts of the «Dictionary of Zoological Nomenclature» were edited by the zoological section of the Natural Sciences<br>Department of the Institute of Ukrainian Scientifi c Language of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and in 1928 – the third part –<br>«Names of Invertebrates» by Professor I. Shchogoliv and S. Panochini. In addition, Professor I. Shchogoliv edited manuscripts of<br>various scientifi c works and textbooks in terms of terminology and scientifi c language.<br>Originality. We have investigated Shchogoliv’s heritage in natural terminology for the fi rst time in historical science. The source<br>base of the study covers a wide range of published and unpublished materials, archival documents and scientists’ scientifi c works.<br>His research activity in this fi eld was during 1909–1929 in the «Circle of Naturalists» of the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute; the Ukrainian<br>Scientifi c Society; the Institute of the Ukrainian Scientifi c Language of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. We have proved his<br>priority in the development of zoological nomenclature.<br>Conclusions. The study of scientifi c heritage of the outstanding scientist-entomologist, teacher, professor I. Shchogoliv allowed<br>to open a new milestone of his work: participation in the development of Ukrainian scientifi c natural terminology. While still a student,<br>he joined the terminology deed, managed to organize like-minded people and organize the acquired knowledge in terminological and<br>nomenclature dictionaries, which have not lost their signifi cance to this day. The achievements of the scientist in the formation of a fullfl edged professional nomenclature is a valuable source for studying the historical progress of domestic natural science. Research on<br>the achievements of predecessors in the fi eld of term formation is timely, because in the light of the new law on language, all branches<br>of science and technology need systematic terminological work in order to take its rightful place on the world stage.</p> Anastasia Onyshchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Onyshchenko Memories of M. P. Ballina, M. V. Levytskoho, V. S. Nahirnoho about the cooperative movement of Ukraine in the second half of the 19th - the beginning of the 20th century <p>Introduction. The study of the experience of the cooperative movement is one of the promising areas of scientifi c research<br>in the conditions of economic reforms.<br>For a complete reconstruction of the history of the cooperative movement, studying its benefi ts and problems on the way<br>of implementation, it is important to use the whole complex of sources, including a special approach. Despite their subjective<br>nature, including it in the scientifi c study contributes to the factual, emotional and value content of the issue, which contributes<br>to a deeper understanding of it.<br>Purpose. The purpose of the study is to analyze the memories of M. P. Ballina, M. V. Levytskoho, V. S. Nahirnoho of the<br>development of the cooperative movement in Ukraine in the second half of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century.<br>Methods. The principles of scientifi ty, historicism, and objectivity were observed in the study of this problem. It contains<br>general scientifi c methods of logical analysis, synthesis, comparison, summarization, and description, as well as historical<br>methods of scientifi c knowledge: problem-conceptual, problem-chronological, and historical-comparative.<br>Results. Based on the analysis of the memories of M. P. Ballina, M. V. Levytskoho, V. S. Nahirnoho it was determined<br>that they have a great source potential for studying the history of the cooperative movement in Ukraine in the second half of the<br>19th – the beginning of the 20th century. They revealed the biographical data of the fi rst cooperators, the development of their<br>cooperative views. The memoirs describe the process of opening the fi rst cooperatives in Ukraine, the diffi culties and obstacles<br>in the way of their establishment. Memories also allow us to study a wide range of problems in the history of Ukraine of the<br>second half of the 19th century – the beginning of the 20th century, namely the development of social and political currents,<br>cultural and educational activity of the Ukrainian intelligentsia, perception through the prism of the personality of the events<br>and processes characteristic of the examined period.<br>Originality. The memories of M. P. Ballina, M. V. Levytskoho, V. S. Nahirnoho has been comprehensively investigated.<br>Analyzed their content and identifi ed promising areas of their use as a historical source.<br>Conclusion. The memoirs of M. P. Ballina, M. V. Levytskoho, V. S. Nahirnoho are not only an important source of the<br>cooperative movement of Ukraine in the second half of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century, but they also have a great<br>necklore potential for the complex creation of the history of the period in question.</p> Iryna Piatnytskova Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Piatnytskova THE SYSTEM OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY IN EASTERN GALICIA AND VOLHYNIA IN 20-30S OF THE 20TH CENTURY <p><span class="fontstyle0">Introduction. </span><span class="fontstyle2">At the present stage of Ukrainian-Polish relations and the establishment of both states in<br>the world and European communities, the lessons of the restoration of national statehood, the formation and<br>development of the Polish state in the diffi cult conditions of interwar Europe are becoming especially relevant.<br>The study of the history of the Second Polish Republic is important for domestic historians in terms of the long stay<br>of part of the Ukrainian lands as part of Poland. The processes that took place in the relations between the two<br>peoples during the interwar period are quite complex and require detailed coverage.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">The purpose </span><span class="fontstyle2">of our study is to clarify the features of the system of non-governmental education of the<br>Ukrainian peasantry in Eastern Galicia and Volhynia in the 20-30s of the twentieth century.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results. </span><span class="fontstyle2">Highlighting the state of Ukrainian education in the Ukrainian lands of the Second Polish Republic,<br>we note the infl uence of the Greek Catholic Church and the clergy on the development of educational processes.<br>Due to the fact that all public schools of different levels of training were only with the Polish language of instruction<br>and access to them was diffi cult for Ukrainian youth, the church was actively involved in the formation of a network<br>of Ukrainian educational institutions. Institutes at the monasteries of the Basilian Sisters played a signifi cant role<br>in the upbringing of young people. These institutions were similar to dormitories in their organization.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion. </span><span class="fontstyle2">During its existence in the Polish state, the Ukrainian education system did not lose its national<br>features, which became possible due to the active activity and cooperation of the intellectuals, cooperatives and<br>the Greek Catholic clergy. “Ridna Shkola” and “Prosvita” became the basis of a system of non-governmental<br>educational institutions in which Ukrainian youth and peasants had the opportunity to study in the Ukrainian<br>language. Despite the objective challenges, Ukrainian societies have managed to organize at the appropriate level<br>the educational process in preschools, people’s schools, teachers’ seminaries, gymnasiums and vocational schools.<br>“Ridna Shkola” and “Prosvita” conducted training courses and lectures for the illiterate, engaged in library and<br>publishing affairs.</span> </p> Vladyslav Boiechko Hlieb Boiechko Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 6 10 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Boiechko The cultural fi eld of anti-alcohol prints “for the people” in Ukrainian at the turn of the 19th - 20th centuries. <p>Introduction. Emancipation processes in Dnieper Ukraine contributed to expansion of the readership and appearance of<br>the prints “for the people,” created for educational and commercial purposes. The ways of anti-alcohol theme representation in<br>both groups of publications revealed the multilayered cultural fi eld of the language of communication with the “new readers,”<br>which was formed in the process of their enculturation into the expanse of modern public communication.<br>Purpose. The purpose of the research is to consider the models of representation of anti-alcohol attitudes in Ukrainian<br>popular editions of educational and commercial character at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. The research methodology<br>is based on application of the interdisciplinary approach at the intersection of cultural and reading history, bibliography and<br>literature studies.<br>Results. Ukrainian-language prints on anti-alcohol topics have been identifi ed. Strategies of their development and<br>specifi city of their ideological and theoretical content were analyzed.<br>Originality. The “cultural fi eld” of anti-alcohol prints “for the people” has been studied as a multilayered synthesis<br>of ideas and perceptions, which the authors tried to adapt in accordance with their own goals and perception of “the new<br>readers”.<br>Conclusion. Ukrainian intellectuals reinterpreted the problem of alcoholism in a modernist and educational paradigm.<br>By popularizing scientifi c achievements, they used rhetorical techniques of anti-alcohol propaganda of the authorities and<br>the Orthodox Church, Ukrainian religious literature, appealed to the common perceptions of the peasants and to the national<br>intellectual traditions. When formed the ideas of the modern cultural world, they tried to infl uence changes in the way of life<br>and identifi cation of the peasants, offered examples of orientation in social and political life, contributed to the expansion of<br>the Ukrainian cultural space. Compilers of commercial editions in Ukrainian mastered the theme on the border of formulas<br>of popular literature, forklore tradition, and narrow-minded views on the problems of culture. Their writings were a medium<br>between “high” and “popular” culture, another way of public communication.</p> Viktoriia Voloshenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 11 19 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Voloshenko Research and production integration in the agricultural sector of the Bulgarian economy (1970–1990s) <p>Introduction. The degree of development and intensifi cation of agricultural production in Bulgaria in the<br>1970s and 1990s depended on its scientifi c substantiation, comprehensive implementation of the achievements of<br>agricultural science in agricultural practice. In the second half of the twentieth century. Agrarian science became<br>increasingly important, infl uencing the growth of Bulgaria’s economic development. The development of Bulgarian<br>agricultural science has contributed to the establishment of international relations in the economic, scientifi c,<br>technical and social spheres. In the second half of the twentieth century. In Bulgarian agriculture, the tendency to<br>modernize agricultural production by achieving high and sustainable development of production, improving the<br>quality of products by involving all factors, including the scientifi c achievements of agricultural science.<br>Purpose. The aim of the study is to study the development of research and production integration in the<br>agricultural sector of the Bulgarian economy in the 1970s and 1990s.<br>Results. In the article for the fi rst time in domestic Bulgarian the question of infl uence of scientifi c and<br>technical integration in agricultural production is considered. It was revealed that due to the introduction of the<br>latest scientifi c theoretical knowledge in the production sphere a high level of development of the agricultural<br>sphere was achieved, which increased the competitiveness, investment attractiveness and social orientation of the<br>industry.<br>Conclusion. As a result of the study, the author came to the following conclusions:<br>- structural changes in agriculture, achieved in this period were carried out through the introduction of<br>scientifi c advances in the agricultural production sphere, the use of the latest scientifi c technologies;<br>- Measures taken to modernize the agricultural sector of the Bulgarian economy have contributed to increasing<br>the level of productivity of the industry, improving sowing and planting material.<br>- Priorities for the development of agricultural science to support indicators of agricultural production have<br>been identifi ed</p> Maria Georgieva Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Georgieva Historical precondition and diffi culties of implementation land market in Ukraine <p>Introduction. In the conditions of formation of market relations in independent Ukraine the introduction of agrarian<br>in general and land reforms, in particular, became important. An important part of the process of implementation of these<br>transformations is the reform of land relations. The result of the elimination of the state monopoly on land, the establishment<br>of market transformations in the agricultural sector was the introduction of private ownership of agricultural land. Now it<br>remains to implement the preconditions for the ending of agrarian reform - to open the land market.<br>The purpose of the article is to clarify the benefi ts and risks of the introduction of free circulation of agricultural land in<br>Ukraine, the limitation associated with this measure.<br>Results.The article presents a brief retrospective analysis of land relations in Ukraine regarding the implementation of<br>certain elements and components of the land market. Prospects and diffi culties of land market introduction in Ukraine are<br>revealed. Discussion questions on the expediency or inexpediency of opening the market of agricultural lands are analyzed.<br>The positive and negative consequences of this step are considered.<br>In particular, the positives for small and medium-sized businesses in terms of access to cheap mortgage lending secured<br>by land. Among the risks of this process are: sale of Ukrainian lands to foreigners; buying land at a low initial price; lack of<br>opportunity for peasants to compete with large agricultural holdings.<br>The article also analyzed the regulatory and legal restrictions imposed by the state to prevent risks. It is pointed out the<br>need to fi nalize the legislative package for the practical implementation of the regulated land market.<br>Conclusions. The study concluded that the completion of the legislative package and the adoption of these laws to open<br>the land market is necessary to ensure transparency, effi ciency and prevent the monopolization of agricultural land.<br>Also, in the process of introducing a civilized land market in Ukraine, it is worth using foreign experience in reforming<br>the agricultural sector and implementing the principles of land use based on market relations.<br>Considering the foreign experience of opening the market of agricultural land, the positive effect predicted by the World<br>Bank experts, as well as the international obligations undertaken by Ukraine, the introduction of the circulation of agricultural<br>land in Ukraine is considered appropriate. The consequence should be the improvement of land relations and increase the<br>effi ciency of land use.</p> Nelya Zhulkanych Vasyl Mistchanyn Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 24 29 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Zhulkanych-Mistchanyn The Ukrainian peasant factor in the german-soviet war 1941 – 1945 <p>Introduction. Among the most important problems of national history, a special place belongs to those related to the<br>history of the Ukrainian village in the period 1941 – 1945. This is due to the fact that its economic and human potential was<br>one of the main factors determining the course and consequences of military confl ict between USSR and Germany. Both<br>warring parties depended heavily on Ukraine’s raw materials, food, and labor resources. Ukrainian rural society became an<br>important source of manning combat units of the USSR Armed Forces and formations of the anti-Nazi Resistance movement.<br>With their military and labor victory and sacrifi ce, the Ukrainian peasantry made a signifi cant contribution to the victory over<br>the invaders.<br>Purpose. In the context of this involvement of publications is an analysis of the Ukrainian peasant segment of the GermanSoviet war of 1941 – 1945, determining the places and role of the Ukrainian peasantry in the defeat of Nazi Germany.<br>Methods. The authors used a socio-cultural approach, as well as general scientifi c principles of historicism, science,<br>objectivity, etc.<br>Results. The above allows us to state that the Ukrainian peasant factor was important in the German-Soviet war of 1941<br>– 1945. The peasantry of Ukraine made a huge contribution to changing the defense capabilities of countries. The material and<br>human resources of the Ukrainian countryside played an extremely important role in the victory over Nazi Germany.<br>Originality. The results of the research obtained by the authors are scientifi cally signifi cant and new. They signifi cantly<br>expand and supplement previous knowledge about the place and role of the Ukrainian peasant factor in the German-Soviet<br>war 1941 – 1945.<br>Conclusion. The materials of the research allow to signifi cantly supplement the knowledge of the national history of the<br>war in general, and the history of the Ukrainian peasantry of this period as a holistic and multifaceted phenomenon.</p> Olexander Perehrest Olena Titika Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Perehrest-Titika The role of the elite of Podilya in the introducing of cooperative institutions in Podilsk province at the end of XIX - early XX century <p>Introduction. Finding out the role of the regional elite in the spread of the cooperative movement in the Podolsk province<br>is important in terms of such factors. Provides an opportunity to trace what actions they took to improve the socio-economic<br>situation of the population. And can show their personal contribution to solving social and economic problems in the province<br>at the turn of the century. The study of the role of regional elites in the history of Ukraine is important for the development of<br>the modern Ukrainian state.<br>Purpose. The purpose of the study is to determine the role of representatives of the regional elite of Podillya in the<br>dissemination and implementation of ideas of cooperative management among the population of the province in the second half<br>of the nineteenth – early twentieth century. To achieve the purpose of the study, we focus on solving the following tasks. Find<br>out the reasons that led to the search for a new management system. Describe the development of the cooperative movement<br>in the Podolsk province in the specifi ed chronological framework. To trace the participation of economic sector fi gures in<br>the dissemination of cooperative ideas among the population of the region and assistance to peasants in the organization<br>of cooperative societies. Find out their personal contribution to the development of cooperation in Podillya and outline the<br>social usefulness of their activities. Methods. The study is based on the use of such methods as: concrete-historical and using<br>a social approach. The principles of objectivity and comprehensiveness allow the best use of methods of analysis and synthesis<br>to achieve the objectives.<br>Results. The article reveals the role of the regional elite of Podolsk province in the introduction of various types of<br>cooperatives among the population of the region. In particular, the main emphasis is placed on materials that highlight their<br>repeated explanations to the villagers of the usefulness of such types of farms in conditions of scarcity of land and lack of<br>resources for a full and profi table one-man farm. It is noted that thanks to the persistence and hard work of some fi gures of the<br>economic sector of the province, it was possible to successfully promote and implement the ideas of cooperative management<br>among the rural population of Podillya.<br>Originality. An element of scientifi c novelty of the study is an attempt to outline and analyze the personal contribution<br>of representatives of the regional elite, including socio-economic fi gures of Podolsk province, who, not showing indifference<br>to economic problems, tried to improve the life of the population and the general state of economic relations in the province.<br>Conclusion. The introduction of cooperative institutions in the Podolsk province was not easy. Although the rural<br>population later became interested in this innovation and tried to create and develop various cooperative societies, not many<br>cooperatives worked properly. Activists of the Podolsk economic sector predicted from the very beginning that this case would<br>move forward with signifi cant problems. However, observing the problem of scarcity of land, the problem of lack of funds for<br>productive labor in agriculture and the destruction of individual farms due to credit debts, they understood that the situation<br>needed to change.<br>Persons such as J. Voloshinovsky, V. Vornikov, M. Trublaevich, R. Renning, D. Zosimato, P. Severenchuk and many others<br>tried to raise the level of economic activity of the population and the general economic situation in the Podolsk province. This<br>was also done with the help of some landowners. Earl D. Heyden provided signifi cant assistance for the development and<br>maintenance of cooperative institutions. Governor О. Eyler was also interested in spreading this type of management.<br>In general, we can state that the above-mentioned persons, due to active participation in socially useful work, have<br>become bright fi gures of Podillya in the socio-economic sphere of the region. The vector of research proposed in our study does<br>not exhaust the whole problem, but only reveals additional opportunities for further study of the activities of the elite of Podillya<br>in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries.</p> Olexander Pochynok Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Pochynok Contribution of local committees of the special meeting on agricultural industry in the development of the fundamentals of the new agricultural policy in the early 20th (on the materials of Uman county) <p>Introduction. The article analyzes the activities of the Uman County Committee of the Special Meeting on the needs of the<br>agricultural industry. It is stated that the local committees have generally done a titanic job, providing the Special Meeting with<br>mostly objective information about the problems in agriculture. Their work was fi nished in 1903 with the publication in the<br>same year of 58 volumes of «Proceedings of Local Committees». The papers played a prominent role in the work of the Special<br>Meeting. On the one hand, they allowed to form a holistic view of the state of agriculture in different regions of the Russian<br>Empire. On the other hand, they were a kind of evidence base during the discussion of issues and the adoption of appropriate<br>decisions during the meetings of the Special Meeting.<br>Purpose. Сlarifi cation of regional features in the activities of local committees of the Special Meeting on the needs of the<br>agricultural industry and their contribution to the development of the foundations of the new agricultural policy in the early<br>twentieth century. on the materials of the Uman County Committee.<br>Results. It is noted that the Uman County Committee considered a number of issues related to the improvement of<br>agriculture in the region. Among them are the state of public education, veterinary care, the development of distilling, the need<br>to combat ravines, agricultural pests, pollution of water bodies by sugar factories.The members of the committee also paid<br>attention to the need for meteorological observations and the establishment of meteorological stations, the establishment of<br>agricultural societies. According to the members of the committee, fi res, impassability, etc. were a signifi cant problem for Uman<br>County. Issues related to lending to small farmers played a signifi cant role in the work of the committee.<br>The views of the Uman County Committee on the existence of the community are analyzed and it is noted that the members<br>of the Uman County Committee analyzed in detail the negative consequences of the existence of communal land tenure in the<br>region. While fully sharing the views of the peasants, the members of the committee agreed that only with the liquidation of the<br>community could improve the situation of the peasants. The members of the committee preferred the development of the farm<br>in the region.<br>Conclusion. That the need to reorganize agricultural policy was perceived in its own way by the members of the committee,<br>however, they noted that in order to overcome the crisis of agriculture, fi rst of all it is necessary to eliminate cultural, legal,<br>fi nancial and economic problems.</p> Zinaida Svyaschenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Svyaschenko Ukrainian peasantbreadwinner: historical and ethymological discourse <p>Introduction. The article analyzes the changing attitude to the Ukrainian peasants-landowners in the Soviet society;<br>compares the etymology of the Ukrainian word «selo» and Russian «derevnya»; traces the dynamics of defi nitions: «peasant»,<br>«master», «goodman» «owner», «individual», «privateer», «farmer», «kurkul» (in the Russian Empire; the Ukrainian People’s<br>Republic; the Soviet Union / the Ukrainian SSR) identifi ed the most commonly used Soviet labels of Ukrainian peasantsproprietors: «kurkuls», «kulaks», «bandits», «petlyurovtsy», «former people» (both peasants and intellectuals were called<br>so), «petty bourgeois», etc. The Soviets labeled the children of the «kulaks» as «kurkul’s bastards», «kurkul snouts», «kurkul<br>henchmen»; It is traced how the meaning of the word «kurkul» changed in the Ukrainian language during the Soviet period.<br>The aim is to analyze the etymology of the words “village”(“selo”) and “peasant” in the context of civilizational<br>development of Ukraine; to trace the acquisition of the negative content of the phrases “Ukrainian peasant” (Ukrainian<br>farmer), peasant-proprietor, tiller in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union /the Ukrainian SSR.<br>The methodology of the research is based on the principles of historicism; civilizational, interdisciplinary approaches;<br>and the concepts of W. Noll and E. Durkheim. The authors used the method of critical analysis of sources, typological, as well<br>as analysis, synthesis, generalization.<br>Scientifi c novelty. For the fi rst time the article made an attempt to synthesize linguistic and historical knowledge in<br>order to trace the changes in the stylistic coloring of the words «village», «Ukrainian peasant» (Ukrainian farmer), peasantproprietor (master) in the Soviet society.<br>Conclusions. Ukrainians were representatives of an agrarian civilization with thousands of years of history and culture.<br>The word «village» has a long etymology and kinship with Slavic languages. It comes from the Proto-Slavic language. The<br>Ukrainian peasantry has traditionally sought economic freedom and aspired to self-governing forms of government and<br>economic management. Historically Ukrainians were called ploughmen, breadwinners, tillers, farmers, land guardians and<br>so on.<br>From the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, Ukrainians in the Russian Empire were disparagingly<br>called «muzhik nation», «hillbilly», «khokhly». The legitimization of the Communist regime in Ukraine, the rise of the lumpen<br>proletariat, the creation of a «new man», the «Soviet people» a priori did not presuppose respect for the farmer, the existence<br>of private property, or traditional Ukrainian culture. And while in the Ukrainian People’s Republic the peasant proprietors<br>were treated as «masters», «goodmen», «individuals», «privateers» and «farmers», the Bolshevik leaders viewed them through<br>the prism of inferiority. The successful (wealthy) Ukrainian peasants-proprietors after the Bolshevik occupation of the UPR<br>were labeled «kurkuls», «kulaks», «bandits», «petlyurovtsy», «former people», «petty bourgeois», «rednecks»; the children of<br>«kurkuls» were called «kurkul bastards», «kulak snouts», «kulak henchmen». The Soviets labeled, branded the entire «kurkul’s»<br>family. The village and Ukrainian peasants were treated as something secondary, serviceable, backward, «muzhychy»; they<br>were disparagingly called «redneck», «byky», «derevnya».</p> Svitlana Markova Liliya Sheremeta Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Markova-Sheremeta Ukrainian peasants of the South of Ukraine in the views of E. Chykalenko: ethnological dimension <p>Introduction. In this article the author seeks to deepen the study of the views of the Ukrainian fi gure of the last<br>nineteenth – fi rst quarter of the twentieth century E. Chykalenko to the peasantry of the South of Ukraine.<br>In essence, this investigation is a continuation of the analysis of a broad scientifi c problem, which was recently<br>covered in the pages of «Ukrainian Peasant» (Cherkasy, 2019, №22). If in the mentioned article it was concluded that it<br>is expedient to study the original peasant world in the context of its own cultural circle, to interpret its diffusion, namely,<br>the limits and intensity of spread to cultural circles of other ethnic groups (Russians, Germans, Jews, etc.), here the<br>author’s attention is drawn to something else, namely – algorithms and the general culture of communication of rural<br>people with the natural environment, social environment, political environment. We are also talking about the content<br>and nature of everyday relations of peasants, mental and ideological factors of their decisions and reproductive actions,<br>manners of everyday behavioral practices, the problem of snobbery, «ethnic» separatism, nobility, ideology.<br>Purpose. To deepen the research of various aspects of everyday life and activity of the Ukrainian peasantry of<br>the South of Ukraine in the memoirs / views of E. Chykalenko, occasionally «updating» some principles of the used<br>methodological tools.<br>Methods. The methodological peculiarity of exploration is a set of original categories of ethnological science,<br>which make it possible to discover the everyday life of Ukrainian peasantry, to distinguish and analyze its various<br>aspects – interaction with the natural and social environment, problems of identity, self-esteem, interethnic confl icts,<br>modern transformation, etc.<br>Results. In his vision of the peasantry of southern Ukraine (also Poltava region), E. Chykalenko proved to be quite<br>dependent on those ideological priorities that were inherent in the Ukrainian intelligentsia of his time. Such problems<br>include grounds for the dominance of social aspects of ideas. These views were quite stable. At the same time, in<br>contrast to the then widespread Marxist interpretations of «production relations» in the countryside, Chykalenko did not<br>sympathize with the class approach to explaining the obvious processes of social stratifi cation of the village.<br>Originality. The novelty of the study lies in the marked increase in scientifi c knowledge about the ethnographic<br>features of the Ukrainian (southern Ukrainian) peasantry in the late nineteenth – early decades of the twentieth century,<br>as they are refl ected in the «Memoirs» of Eugene Chykalenko. Analyzed in historical retrospect, these features refl ect<br>a truly unique and at the same time universal world of the traditional Ukrainian population, which gives grounds for<br>conceptually alternative interpretations of many events, phenomena, processes of the late imperial period.<br>Conclusion. The study confi rmed and enriched the author’s earlier conclusion that the Ukrainian peasantry of<br>the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and in this case its so-called «southern» phenomenon, should be<br>imagined and interpreted as a unique historical phenomenon. This uniqueness stems from the truly original cultural<br>and communicative nature, both environmental and social (socio-cultural). All this strengthens the belief in the need to<br>look for an alternative to the still excessive dependence of historians on politically ordered or politically conditioned<br>interpretation of the past of the Ukrainian peasantry.</p> Yriy Prysiazhniuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Prysiazhniuk Mass man-made famine of 1921–1923 and issues of Ukrainian grain exports <p>Introduction. The article analyzes the statistical data of sown areas, yield, a gross harvest of grain crops of the Ukrainian<br>SSR, RSFSR, and the USSR for the period 1921-1923. The summary information makes it possible to determine the food<br>situation in Ukraine and the level of food supply for its population, observantly track the use of Ukrainian grain for domestic<br>Russian needs, and export abroad, which led to man-made famine.<br>The positions of the representatives of the State Plan set out in the article, prove their conscious decisions on the excessive<br>withdrawal of bread in the Ukrainian provinces, including the starving, to increase the sown area affected by the Holodomor in<br>the Volga regions. The increase in grain exports from the USSR, in particular, due to Ukrainian grain procurements, to restore<br>trade relations with European countries and equalize the trade balance of foreign relations infl uenced the leveling of the themes<br>of mass starvation.<br>Originality. The relevance of the topic chosen for the study is due to the fact that the grain market of Ukraine at the<br>beginning of the twentieth century provided bread not only for the local population but also served as a reserve for other<br>territories of the Russian Empire. At the same time, grain was exported to many European countries. Despite the instability of<br>harvests, there was no massive starvation in Ukraine until the early 1920s.<br>Purpose: the need to investigate regularity in changes in the yield and food situation in the Ukrainian SSR in 1921–1923<br>in connection with the export of grain to the Russian provinces, which were starving, and abroad.<br>Results. Large areas of grain crops and their harvests in Ukraine played a signifi cant role in international relations at the<br>beginning of the twentieth century and were one of the reasons for the Bolshevik expansion. The combination of natural crop<br>failure with overtime centralized grain procurement, which was used to overcome domestic food problems in Russian provinces<br>and capital cities (red capitals) led to the creation of a food disaster and caused famine in the south of the Ukrainian SSR in<br>1921 - 1923.<br>The artifi ciality of the famine is confi rmed by unreasonably overstated harvest plans in Ukraine, and then by an increased<br>product tax. A negative factor was the use of Ukrainian grain to restore the sown areas in the affected Volga region, which<br>led to their decrease in the Ukrainian SSR. The deliberate concealment of the situation with the rationed food supply for the<br>population led to the mass mortality expected in the State Planning Committee.<br>The desire of the Soviet authorities to return the USSR to the leaders of the world grain market, as well as to aline the<br>balance of trade and foreign relations through grain exports affected the silence about the situation with famine in the USSR.<br>The signifi cant harvest of 1923 prompted an increase in grain exports and planning for a gradual increase in exports.</p> Dmytro Baikienich Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Baikienich Kyiv durind the Holodomor-genocide (1932-1933) <p>Introduction. The criminal policy of excessive grain procurement, which the communist totalitarian regime used as a weapon<br>to subdue and destroy the Ukrainian nation, already in early 1932 led to large-scale famine and death rates in Ukraine, the Kuban<br>and those regions of the Soviet Union where millions of Ukrainians lived compactly. Large masses of Ukrainians from rural areas,<br>primarily from the Kyiv region, in 1932-1933 tried different ways and opportunities to reach Kyiv. In the big city, they hoped to<br>survive themselves and with their children from starvation, as well as get a job at one of Kyiv’s many plants, fl eeing from collective<br>farm slavery. However, the food and sanitary-epidemic situation in Kyiv was not much better than in the starving Ukrainian villages.<br>Thousands of Ukrainians living in Kyiv were forced to starve and live in inhumane living conditions, replenishing the number of victims<br>of the crime of the communist totalitarian regime every day.<br>Purpose. The purpose of the article is to investigate the socio-economic, food, material, household, epidemic situations in Kyiv<br>during the communist totalitarian regime’s genocide of Ukrainians in 1932-1933.<br>Methods of the study. To achieve this goal, problem-chronological, historical-comparative, system-structural, logical-analytical<br>and descriptive methods were used.<br>Originality. Based on a wide range of eyewitness testimonies that survived the Holodomor-genocide in Kyiv, a large amount of<br>published and archival documents, a comprehensive analysis of key aspects of life in Kyiv during the communist totalitarian regime’s<br>genocide of Ukrainians in 1932-1933 was made for the fi rst time.<br>Conclusion. Aiming to undermine the moral and psychological strength of the Ukrainian nation, its desire for national and state<br>revival, the communist totalitarian regime committed genocide against Ukrainians, using artifi cially organized famine as the main<br>instrument of the crime. The policy of excessive, criminal procurement of bread led to the Holodomor-genocide in Ukraine, the Kuban<br>and other regions of the Soviet Union, where Ukrainians lived compactly. Exhausted by starvation, Ukrainians went to large industrial<br>cities to escape from death and in hope to fi nd some food there. Kyiv was no exception in this context. During the Holodomor-genocide,<br>thousands of Ukrainians died on its streets, thousands of children became homeless or were sent to Kyiv orphanages. In turn, famine,<br>mass deaths and a terrible sanitary and epidemic situation provoked an outbreak of an epidemic of infectious diseases in Kyiv, which<br>also caused many deaths</p> Andriy Ivanets Ivan Petrenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Ivanets-Petrenko The communist propaganda in the context of collectivization and the Holodomor of 1932–1933. <p>Introduction. The totalitarian state of the USSR used constant violence against a person and total<br>“brainwashing” to ensure a monopoly of power and ideologe. The promotion of communist ideas in Ukrainian<br>society was ensured through mass propaganda. The authorities tried to involve as wide a circle of participants<br>as possible in the propaganda process and used the entire available arsenal of mass media. The imposition<br>of a collective management system in the Ukrainian countryside was closely connected with the breaking<br>the old worldview and traditional way of life. The aggressive way of imposing the kolkhoz system and the<br>obvious discrepancy between the promises and the reality led to a confl ict of interest among the peasant<br>community and mass resistance to the actions of the authorities. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the<br>chosen methods and forms of propaganda during the collectivization were successful in promoting the new<br>ideology. Propaganda as an important factor of change is considered in scientifi c works usually indirectly<br>because researchers focus on the political and economic aspects of collectivization and the tragedy of the<br>Holodomor 1932–1933. Its forms and methods require further study.<br>The purpose. The aim is to fi nd out the most successful methods of infl uence and the most typical<br>messages to the consciousness of the Ukrainian peasant during collectivization and the Holodomor of 1932–<br>1933, ways of spreading information and the circle of people involved in propaganda activities.<br>Conclusion. It was found that the communist totalitarian regime used all the media at that time (press,<br>radio, cinema) to promote the idea of agriculture collectivization. The periodicals and posters were the<br>most effective among them in the 1930s because the large readership was biggest. The party functionaries,<br>school teachers, students, teachers of institutes and workers involved in grain harvesting were maked to<br>be propagandists. The сommunist propaganda appealed to people’s feelings, not their minds, so it was<br>successful. It used clear forms such as slogans, caricatures, combined different information genres skillfully.<br>This approach caused the destruction of relations among the Ukrainian community, divided people into<br>hostile social groups and facilitated the promotion of the idea of agriculture collectivization. At the same time,<br>the propaganda imposed a fear of being left out of the team. As an integral part of state policy, propaganda<br>infl uenced changes in the consciousness of Ukrainians in the direction of unquestioning perception decisions<br>of the communist party and the government and justifi cation of any their actions</p> Svitlana Starovoit Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Starovoit Activity of authorized persons and executors of the Holodomor genocide of 1932–1933: methodological aspect <p>Introduction. Complex analysis of statization of society by the communist totalitarian regime, monopolization of power by<br>a single mass party, its splicing with state apparatus, functioning of branched repressive apparatus are key aspects of study of the<br>outlined issues.<br>Unfortunately, historians do not suffi ciently study the methodology related to the genocide of Ukrainians, limiting themselves to<br>the analysis of general and special methods of scientifi c research within articles, qualifi cation works or monographs.<br>The purpose of the research is to analyze and synthesize key directions (approaches) in the methodology for systematic study<br>of the 1930s reality, especially functioning of the institute of authorized people and executors of the 1932–1933 Holodomor Genocide<br>(circumstances of its creation, structuring, functioning, consequences of its activity).<br>Methodology is based on the interdisciplinary approach and systematic principle. Principle of historicism was used for<br>correlation of different studies of communist totalitarian regime (of total control of the state over all social spheres, destruction<br>of sovereignty of personality, creating of specifi c “referent groups”, institute of authorized people and executors) with new<br>methodological approaches. Along with general methods (analysis, synthesis, deduction, generalization), the author used special<br>ones, such as historical comparative, systematic, and historical typological.<br>Originality of the article is the conceptualization of methodological approaches to the topic of authorized people and executors’<br>actions.<br>Conclusions. As a result, six methodological approaches were studied and there of them (socio-cultural, anthropo-sociocultural, and synergetic) were specifi ed. They allow complex study of creation, functioning, and consequences of institute of<br>authorized people and executors’ activity. Also, it was proven that the methods and scientifi c defi nitions of history of everyday life and anthropologically oriented history (anthropological history) are the most suitable for systematic study of the topic.<br><br></p> Olesia Stasiuk Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Stasiuk AGRARIAN CHARACTER UKRAINIAN REVOLUTION 1917 - 1921 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Review of the monograph “Kornovenko, S. &amp; Zemzyulina, N. &amp; Kovaleva, N. &amp; Malinovsky, B. &amp;<br>Masnenko, V. &amp; Morozov, A. &amp; Mikhailyuk, O. &amp; Pasichna, Yu. Peasants, land and power during<br>the Ukrainian Revolution (1917 - 1921). Cherkasy, 2020”</span></p> Valentyn Lazurenko Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Peasant 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 10.31651/2413-8142-2021-25-Lazurenko